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What is PCR Test?

What is PCR Test?

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Polymerase chain reaction is a common name given to the reactions applied to enzymatically amplify a unique region between two segments of a known sequence in DNA.

What is PCR Test?

The method is simply based on the amplification of nucleic acids in the tube under suitable conditions. PCR, which is also defined as a kind of “in vitro cloning“; consists of denaturation at 94 °C-98 °C, annealing at 37 °C-65 °C, and elongation at 72 °C and is based on a certain number of repetitions of these cycles.

The greatest contribution to the development of the PCR method was the discovery of the enzyme Taq Polymerase because this enzyme is the only enzyme that can withstand even high temperatures. This enzyme was first isolated from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus, which lives in a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. Dr. Kary B. Mullis received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993 for his PCR studies in the 1980s.

PCR is widely used in medical and biological research laboratories in various fields such as diagnosis of hereditary diseases, identification of genetic fingerprints, diagnosis of infectious diseases, cloning of genes, paternity testing, and DNA calculation.

Based on the PCR method, many primers called starter DNA techniques have been developed. These starter DNAs are molecules that have certain sequences and can be produced synthetically. Marker techniques such as RAPD, AFLP, SSR, and ISSR based on PCR have been developed. These techniques are used within and between species in the diagnosis of genetic relatedness in many plants and animals.

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